High Cascades Forest Volunteers
Class Descriptions
West Cascade
 Instructor:  Lyndell Wilkin
 Friday 9 AM - 8 hour class
Allingham Instructors:  Carol Gleason & Jan Carpenter
Time:  6 hours 
Geared for wilderness environments, this class provides information on prevention, assessment and responding to emergencies including bleeding, strains, sprains, dislocations, fractures, heat and cold illness, bites, stings and sudden illness.  Transporting of an injured or ill person will be addressed.  This is not a Red Cross certification class.  You will receive a Wilderness First Aid Card from the Forest Service after completing the 8 hour training  A three year renewal is required for saw certification.  Participants are asked to bring their pack and supplies that they would carry in the woods. During class scenarios participants will use what they have in their packs, in addition to some of the supplies provided by the instructor, to respond to an injury.  
West Cascade Instructors: Carol Gleason & Jan Carpenter
Allingham Instructor:  Carol Gleason & Jan Carpenter
Time: 2 hours 
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation skills will be learned and practiced.  A two year renewal is required for saw certification.
West Cascade Instructor:  Wayne Chevalier
Allingham Instructor: Joe Welke
Time:  16 hrs
This session covers the fundamentals of Crosscut Saw use. It focuses on hazard assessment, safety procedures, saw selection and tooth patterns, the importance of axes and wedges, and the best practices for clearing trail effectively in challenging and potentially hazardous situations. This course consists of one classroom day and one field day clearing trail. The instructor will determine the certification level. Long-sleeve shirt, pants, leather boots, eye protection, gloves and hard hats are required. Gloves and hard hats will be available for those who don’t have them. Bring a saw if you have one.  A current CPR and 1st Aid card are required to take Saw certification classes. Bring your cards with you to the class.  If your cards are not current you can register for the classes at West Cascade or Allingham.
West Cascade Instructor: Jim Bone
Allingham Instructor:  Jim Bone & Nick Swagger
Two 8 hours days
To register for Power/Chain Saw Re-Certification go to  Saw Recert Registration
Instructors: Dana Hendricks
Time: 8 hrs


Instructors: Hayden & Fisher
Time: 8 hrs

For curious trail workers who want to understand why so many trails are in bad shape because of how they were made. Learn how better design and layout makes trails more sustainable and less prone to erosion. Introduction to different trail design standards appropriate for different kinds of trails. This class is for anybody interested in these topics, but students with some trail building and maintenance experience will benefit the most.  Please note that during the field exercise, we will design a proposed trail layout in a place where there is no existing trail. This means we will bush-whack through the woods on uneven, sometimes steep, terrain.



Intended for someone who has taken 201 (Drainage Design & Drain Dips) and/or has considerable experience doing drainage work.  Where earthen rolling drain dips are not feasible, drainage features are sometimes armored using rock or log.  Learn contemporary techniques to build water bars and checks with both rock and log. The class will include a review of outdated techniques, and how to convert “old school” waterbars to a more effective design.
Instructors: Molly Juillerat & 
  Jenny Lippert 
Time: 4 hrs
Limit: 20
Not given this year
Even in protected wilderness and recreation areas, invasive species can invade by hitchhiking on people, dogs, horses, bikes, wading boots and other gear. Once established, invasive species replace native flora, make the habitat inhospitable to wildlife, and can even change the way the ecosystem works. This workshop offers information on what species to look for, how to report them and preventative actions. The workshop, presented by Molly Juillerat and Jenny Lippert, botanists on the Willamette National Forest, will meet and carpool to Buckhead Wildlife Area. The field day includes witnessing some of the impacts of invaders, identifying and reporting them. Volunteers will also have the opportunity to sign up for weed pulls and to adopt trails to monitor for specific species.
Instructor:  Tyson Cross
Time: 4 hrs
Westfir only
This class is highly recommended for helping to survey trails and cleanup lake sites, and educate the public about trail and wilderness resources.  The class is designed to be an overview of duties, training and responsibilities for the jobs of surveying trail conditions, Adopt-A-Lake, Adopt-A-Trail, cleaning out wilderness lake campsites, making public contacts on the trail, or working as a Wilderness Trailhead Host.  Classroom time includes job descriptions for each project, recommended time commitments, and specific field examples provided by those who have already been out there, plus much more.  There will also be out-of-classroom activities designed to teach you the skills "hands on".  Bring gloves and wear work clothes.
Course 207  Trail Decommissioning and Wildland Restoration  
Instructor:
Time: 2 hrs
Allingham only
Learn how to care for your tools and protective gear. Keeping tools sharp is critical for working efficiently and safely.  Session includes how to properly sharpen basic hand tools and why some others are not sharpened. 
Allingham Classes
Saw Certification Classes 
West Cascade Classes (limited to 16 students)
Wilderness First Aid
CPR 
CrossCut Certification
Power/Chain Saw Certification
Course 200  Basic Trail Design
Invasive Weed Field Trip 
Volunteer Ranger Program:  Surveying & Adopting Trails/Lakes, and Trail Patrols
Tool Maintenance
Course 205  Tread Re-Construction 
Reviews the concepts of hillside hydrology and basic trail layout. Re-excavate badly slipped and cupped tread to re-establish outslope and restore the tread to original or ideal specs. (Pre-requisite: 102, or equivalent experience)
Instructor:  
Time: 8 hrs

Instructor:  Chris Sabo
Time: 8 hrs

Learn fundamentals of rock construction including an emphasis on effective and safe use of rock bars the critical tool for all rock work. We’ll tackle basic rock placement techniques for walls to last the ages. Recommended after taking 203 or equivalent experience.
The PCT and its feeder trails cross water courses of every conceivable size and type.  Because bridges are time consuming and expensive, whenever possible it is better to build simpler structures that are more durable.  Learn to build and maintain two to three of the following fords, stepping stones, culverts, French drains, armored swales, and step down drains.  If you enjoy working in water, this is the course for you.  Pre-requisites:  201-205 and 300.
Instructors: Instructor Pool
Time: 8 hrs
Westfir Only
Course 398  Turn Reconstruction 
This special course will teach how to rebuild a difficult, problematic turn to be more user friendly and comply with trail engineering specifications.  It is problem and site specific, so it will involve a little of everything- digging in the dirt, moving of rock and logs, building retaining structures, and brushing.  Bring a clinometer if you have one.
Trail Assessment Training (ETAT)
Keeping our trails open, takes more than just log-out.  Trails are naturally prone to erosion, and when erosion is not curtailed, trails leave a deep scar on the landscape and sediment in our streams.  Furthermore, badly eroded trails are no fun to ride, because of all of the exposed roots and rocks.  Because such trails take an enormous amount of resources to repair, agency trail managers are more likely to abandon and close them.
Learn how you can be part of the solution by developing a keen awareness of erosion patterns when they are just beginning.  If you can provide a detailed and accurate tread assessment to trail managers and volunteer coordinators, they are able to allocate work resources and stay on top of tread erosion problems before they become irrepairable.
We will begin with a historic look at the development of trails, to understand why trails look the way they do.  We will then move into a study of hydrological patterns on hillsides, and learn what an ideal trail looks like when it's shedding. water properly.  Then we'll look at common erosion problems on trails, and how they can be prevented or repaired.
Instructors:  Kim McCarrel and
                   Kit Dickey
Time: 8 hrs
Allingham Only
Course 302  Drainage Crossings 
Instructor: Joe Welke
Time: 8 hrs

Learn how to put an abandoned campsite or section of trail to bed so that it returns to nature without erosion. Some call this Zen and the art of wilderness gardening, or trail magic because if properly done the old trail disappears. Includes transplanting, seed collection, and rock placements.
Instructor: Schubert
Time: 8 hrs

Basic Rigging 
Instructor:  Wayne Chevalier
Time: 4 hrs.

This class covers several fine points dealing with the many different aspects of a rigging operation.  Topics covered include:  safety responsibilities, setting up a project with appropriate equipment, recognizing load ratings, and  determining safe areas during a project operation.   Focus will be on equipment and there will be several outside demonstrations using a load cell to see an actual pull.  Handouts with useful information will be provided.
Course 107  Hand Tool Field Maintenance
Allingham Instructor:  Brasfield
Time: 4 hrs
Allingham only
Learn how to care for trail tools and protective gear.  Keeping tools sharp is critical for working efficiently and safely.   We'll cover how to properly sharpen basic trail tools and discuss why we don't sharpen others.
Introduction to Mechanical Trail Building
Intended for the advanced trail volunteer, this session will explore the differences between different kinds of mechanized equipment that can be used in trail building and reconstruction on non Wilderness and Pacific Crest Trails. Learn how to assess if mechanical means would be the right choice for the job, addressing safety and environmental concerns, and learn the differences between Diggers, Pushers, Toters, and Cutters. Attendees will visit a trail construction project using equipment and have a opportunity to use equipment, but this not an operator training (no certifications).
Instructor:  Ben Beamer
Time: 8 hrs

Are you interested in helping certified sawyers to clear trails, but don't have much experience working with or around saws? Learning to be a saw crew member is an important place to start and takes know-how to do safely.   The session begins with an introduction to saws and and then covers:   Job Hazards Analysis, chainsaw accident history and statistics, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), axe handling, saw safety features, basic saw maintenance, safe saw starting options, saw handling and use, refueling and lubing and making the cuts. This class is an introduction; it does NOT provide saw certification, which is required for those who wish to be lead sawyers.
 103 Intro to Log Out
Instructor: Jim Bone
Time: 8 hrs
Limit:16
Santiam Only
Radio Class
Instructor: Mike Brasfield
Time: 4 hr

Learn about the different methods of communication that can be used on trail projects. Cell phones and Forest Service radios are a couple methods. But both have limitations. There are some alternatives that would compliment both, and are readily available, inexpensive, and good to have on hand in any kind of emergency when out of cell phone coverage. We will discuss these alternatives, plus review Forest Service radios, and how they work.
Power Saw Maintenance
Instructor:  Jim Bone  
Time: 2 hr

This class provides detailed instructions on how to clean and maintain the power saw, keeping all safety features functioning efficiently.  If you would like, bring your own saw.
Noxious Weeds  and Plant Identification
Instructors: Forest Service Botany Staff
Time: 4 hrs

Even in protected wilderness and recreation areas, invasive species can invade by hitchhiking on people, dogs, horses, bikes, wading boots and other gear. Once established, noxious weeds replace native flora, make the habitat inhospitable to wildlife, and can even change the way the ecosystem works. This workshop offers information on what species to look for and how to report them. Presented by Marlo Fisher, assistant botanist and noxious weed coordinator on the Bend/Ft. Rock District of the Deschutes National Forest, this course will contain a classroom and field component. The field portion includes witnessing some of the impacts of invaders, identifying and reporting them.  Volunteers will also have the opportunity to learn about local and statewide weed removal and native plant restoration projects.  
Intro to GPS
Instructors: Dreyer
Time: 2 hrs

Learn how to use the right map, compass and GPS so you can find your way in the backcountry.  This course is
intended for any student who would like to improve their navigation skills.  
Understand sign specifications and learn how to install signs and keep proper records in conjunction with land managers.  Learn about agency standards for signs.  Making needed signs is very gratifying, though navigating the Forest Service sign manual requires special attention to detail.
(The focus of the 4 hr class at Allingham is on installation only.)
Instructor: Mike Brasfield
Time: 4 hrs

Learn the steps for estimating time and materials, and setting up a work project. Learn about trail
triage: how to prioritize and what techniques to use when total trail reconstruction to ideal specs is not
an option. Understand environmental concerns and policies that may impact projects. Learn what to
look for when scouting a trail and how/when to schedule work. Develop advanced knowledge of project
layout and trail (re)construction.
Course 400  Crew Leadership:  Project Management
Instructor: Dana Hendricks
Time: 8 hrs

Wilderness Stewardship & Site Restoration
Instructors: Deschutes NF Wilderness Rangers
Time: 8 hrs
Limited to 8 students
Allingham Only
This course is intended for volunteers who would like to learn more about Wilderness and participate in a late-summer project at North and South Mathieu Lakes, Three Sisters Wilderness.  Beginning with an introduction to the 1964 Wilderness Act, students will discuss Wilderness recreation, human impacts, and the role of Wilderness in our local landscape.  The remaining portion of the class will prepare participants for a Wilderness campsite restoration and rehabilitation project at Mathieu Lakes from August 12th-14th, 2013.  Volunteers will receive an overview of the project and use hand tools to prepare needed materials.  Participation and availability for the summer project is not mandatory, though it is strongly encouraged.  For more information please contact Joe Welke, Deschutes NF Trails Volunteer Coordinator, at 541-383-4040. 
For students with moderate to extensive trail building experience who want to lead trail crews and work parties.  Not a construction techniques class; this is about effective leadership.  Students will have classroom and field work in the following topics:  Work Day Responsibilities; Risk Assessment and Safety; Tool Safety & Tool Talks; Leadership & Team Building; Practical Experience Leading Trail Crews.
Course 304  Managing a Crew   
Instructors: Dana Hendricks
Time: 8 hrs


To register for CrossCut Saw Re-Certification go to   Saw Recert Registration
Bridge Assessment, Maintenance and Repair
For students with moderate trail experience, this field-based course will teach you how to inspect trail bridges for
safety, perform routine maintenance and remove bridges that are inadequate. Participants will be introduced to
Forest Service bridge standards, what to look for when assessing bridge condition, and why certain bridges are
removed. This course will include an evaluation, removal and replacement of  a trail bridge along the Metolius
River corridor 
Instructor:  Buehrig
Time: 8 hrs
Allingham Only
Soils of the Cascades
A quick and dirty hands-on introduction to soil science basics, including soil development and the crucial role of soils in a functioning forest ecosystem.  Join Forest Service soil scientist Sarah Hash for an overview of the geology and common soil types on the Willamette and Deschutes National Forests, progressing from the western slopes of the Cascades to the central Oregon high desert.  Soils are living history books: we’ll look at soil pits and/or cut exposures to learn how soils tell the story of past and ongoing landscape processes.  Learn about the interactions of soil surfaces with water, with a focus on using site characteristics to your advantage when constructing and maintaining trails.  
Instructor:  Sarah Hash
Time: 4 hrs
Allingham Only
Chain Saw Maintenance.
Allingham Instructor:  Jim Bone, James Swagger
Time:  2 hrs
Allingham only
Course 101/102  Intro To Trail Maintenance  
Instructor: Brad Peterson (Class 1)
Instructor: Bill Carpenter (Class 2)
Time: Two 8 hours days



Intended for those new to trail work who want to learn how to cut brush and small logs to help clear a trail to proper specifications. After discussion of general safety protocols, students learn about safe and effective use of hand saws and loppers. This class also includes how to complete an early season trail survey to identify and report major problems, especially blown down logs, by their number, location, and size.
This class provides detailed instructions on how to clean and maintain the power/chain saw, keeping all safety features functioning efficiently.  If you would like, bring your own saw.
Course 298  Advanced Scouting
Instructor:  Bill Carpenter & 
Ron Robinson
Time: 8 hrs

For the intermediate to well-seasoned trail maintainer who would like to become better trained in both seeing trail problems/opportunities and reporting detailed information for work project planning.
 
Master List
Wooden Cribwall Building
Instructor:  Mark Deyer  
Time: 1 hr

This is a 300 level course. Before taking this class, students should be familiar with trail work basics including; basic trail design, tread and drainage work and should have some knowledge of basic wood construction techniques, tools used and how to follow plans. This course will prepare student to construct crib walls with wood according to USFS specifications. Upon completion of the course students will:
    •Understand where and why a crib wall is appropriate
    •How to follow crib wall designs 
    •How to adapt the design to the site without violating the intent of the design
    •How to build a crib wall that is strong, good looking and sustainable
The following is an excerpt from the 2007 Trail Construction and Maintenance Notebook 
(available online at http://www.fs.fed.us/t-d/pubs/htmlpubs/htm07232806/index.htm)
  • Log walls are designed to keep compacted fill in place (figure 76). Construct wood walls by interlocking logs or beams, pinned or notched (for logs) at the joints. Lay sill logs at right angles to the direction of travel and alternate tiers of face logs and header logs (figure 77). 
  • Each successive tier is set to provide enough batter to resist creep pressure from the slope and to reduce pressure on the face logs from the fill. The ends of the header logs are seated against the backslope of the excavation for stability. As fill is tamped in place, filler logs are placed inside the structure to plug the spaces between the face logs. Filler logs are held in place by the fill. 

Course 104 Intro to  Chain Saw
Instructor: Brian McGinley
Time: 8 hrs.



Are you interested in helping certified sawyers to clear trails, but don’t have much experience working with or around saws? Regardless if you aim to become a certified sawyer yourself, learning to be a safety-conscience saw crew member is an important place to start. This class provides field experience with chain saws and axes. Therefore, this class is the place to start, no matter what trail clearing tools you expect to use in the future. The session begins with an introduction to  saws and axes of various types, and how they work. It then covers their safe and effective use, including a review of trail clearing specifications, safety equipment, the forces of tension and bind, and the practice of situational awareness. This class is an introduction; it does NOT provide saw certification, which is required for those who wish to be lead sawyers.
Axe Use and Re-handling
208 Trail Sign Installation
Intro to GPS
Course 200  Trail Design
Courses 101/102  Intro to Trail Management
Course 203  Water bars and Checks
Course 300  Rock Retaining Walls
Course 205  Tread Reconstruction
302 Drainage Crossings
Instructor: Marv Lang
Time: 16 hrs.
Intended for those new to trail work who want to learn how to cut brush and small logs to help clear a trail to proper specifications. After discussion of general safety protocols, students learn about safe and effective use of hand saws and loppers. This class also includes how to complete an early season trail survey to identify and report major problems, especially blown down logs, by their number, location, and size.
Instructors:  Woody Keen
Time: 8 hrs


For curious trail workers who want to understand why so many trails are in bad shape because of how they were made. Learn how better design and layout makes trails more sustainable and less prone to erosion. Introduction to different trail design standards appropriate for different kinds of trails. This class is for anybody interested in these topics, but students with some trail building and maintenance experience will benefit the most.  Please note that during the field exercise, we will design a proposed trail layout in a place where there is no existing trail. This means we will bush-whack through the woods on uneven, sometimes steep, terrain.
Instructor:  Bill Carpenter
Time: 8 hrs

Reviews the concepts of hillside hydrology and basic trail layout. Re-excavate badly slipped and cupped tread to re-establish outslope and restore the tread to original or ideal specs. (Pre-requisite: 102, or equivalent experience)
Instructor:  Dana Hendricks, Larson
Time: 8 hrs

The PCT and its feeder trails cross water courses of every conceivable size and type.  Because bridges are time consuming and expensive, whenever possible it is better to build simpler structures that are more durable.  Learn to build and maintain two to three of the following fords, stepping stones, culverts, French drains, armored swales, and step down drains.  If you enjoy working in water, this is the course for you.  Pre-requisites:  201-205 and 300.
Have you ever wanted to put a new handle on a broken axe or Pulaski but didn’t know how? Join skilled wood and metal worker Mike Brasfield in a hands-on course on re-handling. The ability to properly secure an axe or Pulaski head to a wooden handle is an increasingly rare skill. This class will walk you through the process from start to finish. Students will each re-handle an axe or Pulaski head that will be provided. Due to limited availability of specialized tools, this class is limited to 4 students. There are no pre-requisites to this class but, because of the nature of the course content, the ability to pay close attention to detail is strongly encouraged.  
Advanced GPS
Learn how to use the right map, compass and GPS so you can find your way in the backcountry. This course is
intended for any student who would like to improve their navigation skills.  
This course will build upon the concepts of the “Intro to GPS” class, but with added emphasis on advanced navigation, data collection, and equipment trouble shooting. Time will also be allocated to address individual challenges and answer student questions.
 
Instructor: Nick Swagger
Time: 4 hr

Instructor: Nick Swagger
Time: 2 hr

Course 107 Tool Maintenance
Course 201  Drainage and Drain Dips
Course 203  Water bars and Checks
Intended for someone who has taken 201 (Drainage Design & Drain Dips) and/or has considerable experience doing drainage work.  Where earthen rolling drain dips are not feasible, drainage features are sometimes armored using rock or log.  Learn contemporary techniques to build water bars and checks with both rock and log. The class will include a review of outdated techniques, and how to convert “old school” waterbars to a more effective design.
Instructor: Kevin Rowell
Time: 8 hrs

Course 207  User Trails/Campsite Decommissioning
Learn how to put an abandoned campsite or section of trail to bed so that it returns to nature without erosion. Some call this Zen and the art of wilderness gardening, or trail magic because if properly done the old trail disappears. Includes transplanting, seed collection, and rock placements.
Instructor: Dylan McCoy
Time: 8 hrs

Course 300  Rock Retaining Walls
Learn fundamentals of rock construction including an emphasis on effective and safe use of rock bars the critical tool for all rock work. We’ll tackle basic rock placement techniques for walls to last the ages. Recommended after taking 203 or equivalent experience.
Instructor: Brandon Haraughty
Time: 8 hrs

Course 304  Work Party Management
For students with moderate to extensive trail building experience who want to lead trail crews and work parties.  Not a construction techniques class; this is about effective leadership.  Students will have classroom and field work in the following topics:  Work Day Responsibilities; Risk Assessment and Safety; Tool Safety & Tool Talks; Leadership & Team Building; Practical Experience Leading Trail Crews.
Intended for someone who has taken 102 (Intro to Tread & Drainage) and/or has experience doing drainage work.  Learn how to design and locate effective drainage structures.  After a comprehensive explanation of hillside hydrology and how trails work when they shed water properly, this class shows students how to design and construct long, rolling drain dips as a way of reducing erosion on existing trails.
Learn how to care for trail tools and protective gear.  Keeping tools sharp is critical for working efficiently and safely.   We'll cover how to properly sharpen basic trail tools and discuss why we don't sharpen others.
Instructors: Jim Bone
Time: 2 hrs


This class is intended for trail workers who might work alongside pack stock. Horses and mules are often used on Wilderness projects to pack in tools, project materials and camping gear. However, the safe use of pack stock requires a few special skills. This class is intended to teach trail workers how to behave around pack stock and how they can safely assist the packer. Although the class would offer a cursory introduction to the art of packing, it is not intended to prepare the student to do that on their own. Join packer Jerry Bentz from the Back Country Horseman for a few hours and he’ll teach you how to safely work with pack stock, and how you can help keep your packer happy on your next equestrian supported project.
Instructor:  Jerry Benz
Time: 4 hr

Course 306  Working with Pack Stock
Instructor:  Steve Hayden
Time: 8 hrs

Instructors: Brandon Haraughty
Time: 8 hrs


Course Basic Leave No Trace Wilderness Cooking
Instructor: Ron Robinson and Andie Brandner

Time: 2 hrs.
Leave No Trace Wilderness Cooking will provide guidance for the lightweight backpacker and overnight trail worker on food options, cooking, and gear. Both conventional (carnivore) and vegan options will be covered. The seven Leave No Trace principals will also be discussed with tips on how to apply them in camp. Some past trail stories and lots of Q&A should make this enjoyable.

Course 204  Cooking and Camping with the Crew
Instructors:  TBD
Time: 4 hrs

For students who aim to provide a camp kitchen in either backcountry or frontcountry settings. This course will cover the basics of menu planning and shopping, nutrition, how to set up and maintain a field kitchen, and tips for cooking with trail crews. It also covers best practices for food storage and sanitation at camp. No prior experience is necessary for this course, though familiarity with basic kitchen equipment will be helpful.


The FS requires that chainsaw operators be certified. The successful completion of this course will meet that requirement. This class focuses on chainsaw safety features, hazard assessment, safety procedures, importance of axes and wedges, and the best practices in clearing/maintaining trails effectively in challenging and hazardous situations. The course consists of one classroom day and one field certification day. The instructor will determine the certification level. A helmet, hearing protection, wrap around eye protection, long sleeve shirt, full length pants, gloves, safety chaps, 8” high lugged soled heavy leather boots, axe and wedges are required. A current First Aid and CPR card are required before a Saw Certification card will be issued; if you have these cards please bring them to class.  

Prior to the class you will receive class related material and be asked to notify us if you are lacking a chainsaw or any of the aforementioned protective apparel/equipment. In most cases we can provide loaners. You may want to withhold purchasing a helmet, chaps, or a saw prior to the class as you will likely be a more informed buyer after having attended the class.      
For students aiming to help pull off multi-day trips in either backcountry or frontcountry settings. This course covers nutrition, menu planning and shopping, setting up a field kitchen, what to bring, and tips for cooking with trail crews. It also covers best practices for food storage and sanitation at camp. No prior experience is necessary, though familiarity with basic kitchen equipment will be helpful.


Course 204  Cooking and Camping with the Crew
When you’re out on a trail project, safety is the number one priority. And one of the most critical skills to a safe trail project is communication, whether between crews, or in an emergency situation. Every trail volunteer should know how to make an emergency communication.  

There are many different types of communication devices that can be used on trail projects. Forest Service radios, CB’s, family radios, ham radios and cell phones can all be options. Find out which is best for your trail project, and which might make a good backup. We will review Forest Service radio usage, plus we will review Trail Communication Plans.Double click here to add text.
Radio Class
Instructors: Mike Kinyon
Time: 2 hrs